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Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques, Fourth Edition, answers the question, 'how do you know when someone is lying?' In addition, it also.
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- Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques by Nathan J. Gordon
The third edition expands chapters on torture, assessing the interview, statement analysis, MITT, and interrogation. It contains new chapters on passenger screening, and report writing, along with new case studies. Also covered are ways to maximize the collection of information from a prospective employee, and legal considerations. Gordon and Fleisher have created a one-stop guide to mastering the art of credibility assessment during an interview, with successfully tested techniques for obtaining a confession from guilty suspects. Forensic practitioners, law enforcement, the intelligence community, the private security sector, attorneys, and forensic and criminal justice students will all find this volume a valuable resource.
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Start on. The book addresses techniques for interviewing children and the mentally challenged, and offers information about pre-employment interviews. It also explains how to understand aggressive behavior and how to deal with angry people. The book concludes by presenting future methods for searching for the truth. Law enforcement and security professionals, as well as prosecutors, criminal defense lawyers, and civil litigators will find this book invaluable.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www. This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher other than as may be noted herein.
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.
Gordon, William L. Interviewing in law enforcement. Police questioning. Fleisher, William L. How do you know when someone is lying? The attempt to prevaricate and deceive, born of fundamental instincts for self-preservation, takes as many forms as human ingenuity can devise. The evolution of techniques designed to ferret out the truth provides a fascinating and enlightening preface to this highly readable how-to guide to reliable methods of questioning, observation, and analysis. Those same self-protective mechanisms, hard-wired into all of us, provide the skilled examiner the basis to form judgments about who is lying and who is responding truthfully.
For it is the observable clues provided by our autonomic nervous system to focused questioning that allow the trained interrogator to separate the liars from the truth-tellers. Going beyond theory to practical application of scientific learning, the authors provide a guide to highly usable and proven effective techniques and tradecraft for both interviewing possible suspects and interrogating likely perpetrators.
The forensic assessment interview technique FAINT is the keystone to practical application of the scientific and practical knowledge developed earlier in the book. Again, the use of case studies to illustrate effective application of these techniques adds greatly to the reader's appreciation of their value. Although the third edition of Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques, Third Edition provides a definitive resource for law enforcement and security professionals, others with an interest in identifying prevaricators — prosecutors, criminal defense lawyers, and civil litigators — will also appreciate learning the tricks of the trade revealed in this book.
I speak from personal experience — I have known Bill Fleisher since he was a rookie special agent with the FBI and I was a federal prosecutor investigating fraud and official corruption. Later, when we were each in private practice, Bill helped me expose a lying witness, leading ultimately to a defense verdict in a civil suit involving a claim against a major corporation for more than a billion dollars. You will find, as I have, that not only do these observations and techniques make sense — they work!
Humans possess three basic social instincts: they are aggressive, territorial, and tribal. What this means is that non-socialized humans, when left to their own instinctual devices, will take whatever they can, from whomever or wherever they can, while protecting their own territories and families clans from aggressors. These instincts are not applicable to abstract ideals or territories, in that humans will associate with and protect only their own families or clans and live in their own territories, if they can.
All others and all other property are fair game if instinct is the primary ground for behavior. In entering society, however willingly, we set aside using our instincts as our sole guide. Society usually cannot permit instinctual, essentially selfish behavior; participation in society requires cooperative, complex, considerate and, often, selfless behavior. It establishes institutions and controls that promote its behavioral expectations.
Effective Interviewing and Interrogation
Its social institutions—religion, government, law, politics, art, sports, taboos, etc. Current history leaves little doubt that this is the way with humans; just look at the trouble spots of the world: whether it is Kosovo, Rwanda, or the major cities, whenever social comparatives and institutions falter, there is conflict—undisguised aggression based upon territoriality and tribalness.
However socialized, our instincts, in fact, remain strong: perhaps the strongest and least socialized being our survival instinct. Where socialization fails, instincts direct the behavior of both criminals and tyrants. But instincts they remain, and when they are at work, no matter how subtly, they leave a psycho-physiological trail: detectable signs and signals. We can sadly point to the horrendous events in the summer of , when law and order broke down in fabled New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, as a classic example of human instincts run amuck.
Understanding this psycho-physiological trail enables professional investigators to increase their ability to determine the truth; not a small task, in that knowing the truth is probably the single most important factor in the functioning of society. We need to know whom to trust and whom to rely upon, as trust and interdependence are the glue that holds society together. Thus, the need to ascertain whether someone has violated the norms of trust and therefore represents a threat to an individual or society as a whole is essential to our continued well-being.
Individuals who pose threats rarely announce themselves. Thus, while the results of deviant behavior are often painfully obvious, the perpetrators frequently are not. Penetrating this wall of deception and the separation of the innocent from the guilty are the crux of police work. To increase the efficiency and reliability of that process is the function of this book. The authors intend to give the investigator a critical insight into human behavior, which will enable him to become a better interviewer, a better interrogator and, most importantly, an expert detector of truthful and deceptive behavior.
Nathan J. He is an expert forensic psychophysiologist and an internationally recognized expert in the field of Forensic Assessment Interviewing and Interrogation. He has lectured and conducted seminars on these subjects to thousands of law enforcement, intelligence, and private security officers throughout the United States, Africa, Europe, and Asia. Gordon, a recognized innovator in the field of truth verification, has had his work recognized in publications including Forensic Psychophysiology: Use of the Polygraph , by James Allen Matte.
He is the President of the American Polygraph Association and has served as president of the Pennsylvania Polygraph Association and president of the International Forensic Psychophysiological Institutes Association. He is a Director of the Vidocq Society, where he received the prestigious Vidocq Medal of Honor for his assistance in solving a year-old cold-case homicide. Gordon lives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with his wife, three children, and two grandsons.
William L. Customs Service. Fleisher is a former special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and a supervisor with the Philadelphia Police Department. He has more than 42 years of experience in law enforcement and investigation and has been a polygraph examiner since An internationally recognized expert in Behavior Symptom Analysis, Mr. Fleisher is the author of the U. Customs technical manual on Behavioral Symptom Analysis. Fleisher is the recipient of the Customs Service Distinguished Service Medal and Award for his efforts in developing interviewing techniques for customs inspectors.
Fleisher was recognized in the November issue of Philadelphia magazine as one the 76 Smartest Philadelphians, and the go to guy for other private investigators who need direction in complicated investigations. Fleisher lives in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, with his wife Michelle, four children, and two grandchildren. The authors would like to acknowledge and thank those pioneers who have led the way in the art of interviewing, interrogation, and truth verification.
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The authors would like to give special recognition to Philip M. It was during this time that many of the ideas shared in this book were developed and his contributions are greatly appreciated. The authors would be remiss if they did not express their everlasting gratitude to their loyal wives, Kathy Gordon and Michelle Fleisher, and their families, who have endured many lonely hours supporting their careers. Over the years, the authors have had the distinct pleasure of meeting and training some of the finest individuals from all over the world.
We thank you for your trust in us. Special thanks to Gloria Alvarado, our dedicated office manager, and Jake Haber, former director of Continuing Education, University of Delaware, an early supporter. The authors would also like to acknowledge the editorial contribution by C.
Donald Weinberg to the first edition of this book. They also thank those students and friends that modeled the scenes portrayed in this book.
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The authors wish to dedicate this book in memory of Lee G. Feathers, a member of the first graduating class of the Academy for Scientific Investigative Training. Lee went on to become one of the finest polygraph examiners and interrogators in the northeastern United States—thanks, Lee, for your friendship and insight into interviewing and interrogation.
The need to detect deception is hardly a twentieth-century phenomenon; humans have always needed to distinguish between the trustworthy and the untrustworthy. Agreed, to some small extent there is an inherent conflict in that both truth and deception have their places: they are necessary for individual and social survival. However, in the great majority of cases, deception is used to hide or disguise the truth to the detriment of society. The question is, how can we separate harmless lies from harmful ones and, more to the point, harmful lies from necessary truth?
Those for whom the lies are useful work against solving the problem. They know that for the lie to do its job, it must not be detectable—or, at least, not detectable before escape or attack is possible. Ever since small familial groups of humans banded together for mutual social benefit, or for protection of person and property, humankind has been plagued by individuals whose practices deviate from the societal covenant. The activities of these individuals, if not checked, could and sometimes did destroy the societal group as a whole.
Given that, the ability to detect lies to identify individuals who cannot be trusted has been vital to both physical and social survival. The search for a reliable means to identify the untrustworthy is as ancient as humankind. Many of these attempts, in fact, had some psychological or physiological basis; other methods relied solely on fear of continued pain and torture. What is interesting about human behavior is that it has not changed since Biblical times. In fact, the very first clue to human behavior appeared in the Book of Genesis.
It is the story of Eve influencing Adam to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree. Having eaten it, Adam and Eve were imbued with knowledge and realized they were naked. God asked Adam why he was hiding. Adam replied that they were naked and ashamed. God asked Adam how he knew he was naked: did he eat from the fruit that was forbidden? Adam replied, The woman Thou gave me made me eat thereof.
When God asked Eve about that, Eve stated, The snake beguiled me into eating the forbidden fruit. Although the authors are paraphrasing the story, it is obvious that things have not changed much since the Garden of Eden [ 1]. Persons accused almost always look for someone else to blame for their situation. Often, it is the victim they blame. This is an excellent example of how humans rationalize to escape punishment and conceal the truth. The earliest form of lie detection probably was trial by combat , resolving an issue through strength of arms. In primitive hunting tactics, it was not uncommon for hunters to shoot an arrow or spear into an animal that would only wound it.
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The hunter would then track the wounded animal until it died either from loss of blood or from the poison often used on the arrow tip. Consider the problem of two primitive hunters who approach a fallen prey. Each believes it was his arrow or spear that killed it, and that it belongs to him; they refuse to compromise. As simplistic as it seems, each sees himself as making a truthful claim and the other as not. To decide the truth, which actually means possession, they engage in combat. The ideal assumption is that the individual with truth on his side will prevail.
However, the most cunning and skilled of the combatants usually was victorious and thus declared himself as having the rightful claim. This scenario had changed very little by medieval times. It was then customary that knights engaged in mortal combat to decide whose lord was in the right in any given controversy. Although the practice was functionally the same as trial by combat, the ethical premise was different. It was held that the knight representing the truth would be victorious because of divine intervention —that is, that a just God would not allow injustice to prevail.
Even today, on any given weekend night, a police officer may be called to a club or bar where two men are about to engage in combat to determine which of them is telling the truth about whom the woman seated between them is really with. As you can see, the test of trial by combat lives on.
Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques by Nathan J. Gordon
The next development in the search for truth was trial by ordeal [ 2]. Although these attempts to detect truth appeared to be laden with religious beliefs, they were in fact based on practical observations of both psychological and physiological phenomena, which play an important role in truth-finding processes. For example, in China, in approximately bc, it was common practice to have an accused person chew a handful of crushed dry rice, and then attempt to spit it out certainly not much of an ordeal [ 3]. If the rice became wet, and therefore easy to spit out, the person was considered truthful.
Divine intervention was not involved in this outcome as much as was the salivary gland. This somewhat benign test was based on the physiological phenomenon of inhibited salivary gland activity caused by fear or stress. The truthful individual had normal salivary gland activity, causing the rice to become wet and easy to spit out. The stressed or deceptive person had a dry mouth, and the crushed rice in his mouth remained dry and when he attempted to spit it out it stuck to his mouth. It should be noted that Chinese traditional medicine has been around for some years.
Interestingly, testing for a dry mouth was, and still is, found in a wide range of unrelated cultures worldwide. The most severe version of these tests often consisted of putting some kind of red-hot metal object on the tongue. If the person were truthful, the normal saliva in the mouth protected the tongue, acting as a heat sink to dissipate the burning.
If the person were lying, the mouth would be dry, and the hot metal would burn the unprotected tongue. Even today, in some countries in the Middle East, it is common that the accused in minor cases can choose this traditional method to assert his innocence [ 4]. In various societies, truth tests were developed whose premises were psychological, not physiological.
Trial by the sacred ass is a classic psychological test that was practiced in India around BC [ 2]. In this test, a donkey was staked out in the center of a pitch-dark hut. The suspects were told that inside the hut was a sacred ass that could differentiate between a truthful person and a liar. It did this by braying only when the guilty lying person pulled its tail. They were also told the animal would remain silent if an innocent truthful person pulled its tail.